برای دوستان و همکلاسی های عزیزم
In the name of God
Impotents point of unit one
نکته های هر سر فصل نوشته خواهد شد.و به صورت کاملاً نکته وار بیان میشود و شما دوستان گرامی می توانید از این مطالب استفاده کنید.
Request and command
Open the door / don't open the door a- simple verb
Let's open the door/ let's not open the door b- First person and us
Don't ever… Point: always for positive and ever in negative form
You shouldn't do your home work, when you're tired.
Answer: don't ever do your home work when you're tired.
1-2: exclamatory sentences
These kind of sentences start with: how and what
What: structure is: what+ adjective+ N + subject+ v
Example: what a delicious food this is
How: structure is in 4 formulas:
How lovely girl! a) How + adjective
How cold it is b) How + adjective + subject+ verb
How boring this lecture is. c) How + adjective+ Noun + verb
How bad behavior he has toward you d) How + adv+ sub+ v
Point: in adverbial sentences we should use just how
1-3: joining sentences coordinately
a) Punctuation: first sentence……; the second sentence
b) Coordinate: first sentence……, the second sentence
c) Conjunctive adv: the firs sentence; therefore, the second sentence
1-4: conjunctive adverbs
a) Addition: moreover/ in addition/ beside/ and
b) Condition: otherwise/ or/ if
c) Concession: however/ still/ nevertheless/ but/ although
d) Result: therefore/ consequently / accordingly / so/ for
And we have because for cause
1-5: abridgment in clauses of short agreement
For this practice we have 6 different ways and you can see them below:
And his wife does too
a) John kikes the movies,
And so dose his wife
And his wife doesn't either
b) John doesn't kikes the movies,
And neither does his wife
c) John likes the movie, but his wife doesn't like.
C-1) john doesn't like the movie, but his wife does.
Point: after so/ neither we should reversal the sentences
1-6: parallel structure
Both part of sentence should be same to each other
For link to sentence we should use: and/or but/ yet/ that
We have some coordinate like:
Both………and/ either…….. Or/ not only…… but also
a) Speaking boldly and (clear), he explains why to country attack to each other.
Answer: Speaking boldly and clearly, he explains why to country attack to each other.
In this part we learn how we can get same or add a subject to sentences because the subject maybe isn't clear and we get it clearly. We have two ways
The first: add subject for the first sentence
Example: not knowing that to do, the window was broken so he can escape.
Answer: because he didn't what to do, the second sentence
The second way: add sub for the second sentence
Answer: first sentence, he broke the window to escape
The train coming late, we waited for long time (no change)
با توجه به اینکه نوشته ها بر روی ویلاگ زیاد قابل ویرایش نیست ممکن است نوشته ها کمی جابه جا باشد یا روبه روی حروف نباشند.دوستان به این نکته دقت کنند.
اینم فصل دوم:
IN THE NAME OF GOD
Grammar unit 2
2-1: types of adverbial clause
a) Time: when/ while/ as/ before/ after/ until/ since
Example: I was in South America last year.
b) Contrast: although / though/even though
Point: in these sentences the words like: but/ however/ still delete from sentence
Example: she spends a lot of money on clothes still; they never seem to suit her.
Answer: she spend a lot of money although, they never seem to suit her.
c) Adversative: while/ where/ whereas
These words come at the first of sentence whiteout any change in structure
d) Cause: because / since/ as/in as much as (formal)
Point: some words like: therefore/ why/ reason/ consequently delete them from sentence
Example: my assistant is on vacation for this reason I have a lot of extra work to do.
Answer: because my assistant is on vacation, I have a lot of extra work to do.
e) Result: so + adjective/adverb+ that / such (a) + noun+ that
Example: their school play was very successful.
This was because they had rehearsed many times.
Answer: their school plays was so successful that they had rehearsed many times.
Point: In this kind of sentence we put so….. That instead very
f) Purpose: that/ in order that/ so
g) Condition: if/ unless/ in the event that/ provided/ in case
Point: we delete in this case from these sentences
Example: perhaps we can get a baby sitter.
In this case, we will go to the theater with you to night.
Answer: if we can get a baby sitter, we will go the theater whit you to night.
: Verbs in time clause (future time) 2-2
Two activities will be happen in future
Example: she will never marry until she has found the right man.
Point: the present perfect tense may occur in future time clause, especially with after or until
2-3: verbs in time clause (past time)
In these sentences action interrupted
a) past continues: sub+ was+ ing form+…+ when+ sub+ past verb+…
Example: I was shopping downtown (main clause) when I met an old friend. (Time clause)
b) Action just completed: sub+ had+…+ when+ sub+ past verb
Example: she had just cleared the table when a late dinner guess arrive.
Point: occasionally, just and already occur with a and b sentences.
2-4: conditional clause with UNLESS
Just we should put unless instead if in negative sentences
Example: if there isn't more snow, we can't go out.
Answer: unless there is more snow, we can't go out.
Point: in many sentences, unless is the equivalent of if … not
2-5: real condition (1) future time
a) If + sub+ simple verb+ sub+ will+…
Example: if the weather is good, I'll go to the beach.
b) Imperative: if he calls, tell him to come here at one
2-6: real condition (2) general time
General statement about repeated event and both verb is present or past
Example: if the weather is (was) good, I go (went) to the beach
2-7: unreal conditions (contrary to fact)
These sentences are not likely to be realized in the near future.
a) Present time: if the weather were good now, I would go to the beach.
b) Past time: if the weather had been good yesterday, I would have gone to the beach
2-8: real and unreal conditional clauses
Just you should know about structure and write the sentences
Example: if you get sick, you could go to that seminar
2-9: conditional clauses beginning with were/ had/ should
You must change the place of these words with if and rewrite your sentences again.
Example: if we had known about this sooner, we could have helped you.
Answer: had we known about this sooner, we could have helped you.
2-10: mixed time in unreal conditions
We should combine unreal condition 2 whit unreal condition 3
Example: if he didn't eat a lot, he weren't sick (unreal 2)
If he had eaten less, he wouldn't have got sick. (unreal3)
Answer: (mix) if he had eaten less, he weren't sick.
2-11: unreal conditions in sentences whit but/or/otherwise
These words join two clauses with each other. For understanding better I show the change in four stages but the last one is correct.
Example: if I had his number, I would call him
a) I would call him, if I had his number (change the place of clause and main clause)
b),,,, ,, ,, ,,,, /but ……………….. (Put but/otherwise/or
c) ………………but I have………….. (Change the time)
d) I would call him but I don't have his number (get negative the second sentence)
2-12: adverbial clause of result with so/such/such a
For use these words we should look to the sentences if the word after so is adjective we should put so. Please now pay attention to the formula of structure:
So+ adjective+ that
Example: the bookkeeper is so sufficient that his figures never need to be checked.
So+ adverb+ that
Example: the bookkeeper is so sufficiently that his figures never need to be checked.
Such+ adjective+ noun+ that
Example: these are such ugly chairs that I am going to give it away.
Example: these are such an ugly chair that I am going to give it away.
Example of question:
Lazy boy………………………….he will never amount to any thing
He is such a lazy boy that he will never amount to any thing.
We have some exceptional like: so much trouble, so many difficulties
2-13: adverbial clauses of manner
We have two different types here and their different is in their meaning
به نظر میاد خوابش بیاد. Indicative: he looks as if he needs sleep.
به نظر می رسید خوابش میومده Subjunctive: he looks as if he needed sleep.
The sign of these sentences is as if
Example: it looks this way. /the bank might approve his loan.
Point: we should just omit this way and link two sentence with each other with as if
Answer: it looks as if the bank might approve his loan.
2-14: phrasal conjunctions in adverbial clauses
We should link two sentences with these words like: although……
Finish the second unit of modern two
developing essential study skills
In the name of God
Developing Essential study skills
Unit 2 in summery
Keeping a portfolio
A progress file contains three elements
a) A transcript: record of the modules studied and the grades achieved.
b) Personal developing planning: the skills that you want to develop during you're studied.
c) Personal development records: consist of evidence from which you can select.
What is a portfolio?
A portfolio is used to provide evidence about your development, learning and competence over a period of time.
The benefits of the portfolio approach
a) Increase awareness of your level of competence and how it can developed.
b) Identification of your personal strength to build upon, and to improve your self-confidence and self-esteem.
c) Developing into a reflective and reflexive practitioner through the discipline of reflecting upon what you are doing.
One of the most important aspects of the portfolio approach is learning outcome and skills development, not the weight of evidence and we should know experience alone does not create learning, reflecting is needed to gain real benefits.
The quality assurance agency suggests that employers are seeking the following from graduates:
b) Self motivation
c) Ability to innovate
d) Leader ship ability
What portfolio should be involved?
a) Name/ course/ name of our personal tutor
c) Transcript of achievement
What constitutes evidence?
b) Audio tapes
c) Video films
d) Flow chart
Reflection in our portfolio
Enable us to stand back and critically examine our beliefs, assumption inference, interpretation and etc.
An important part of our portfolio is the reflection on our development and learning.
Because encourage us to think about why certain things happen and the technique is
SWOT analysis and it is abbreviation for STRENGTH, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITEIS AVAILABLE TO US, THREATS WHICH MAY HINDER US.
INSTRUCTOR: MISS: POOR EBRAHIM
UNIVERSITY: SHEIKH BAHAEI